After several miscarriages or several transfers of good-quality embryos without implantation, receptivity of the uterine lining (endometrium) is often questioned. As an important rule, the older the female patient, the more probable is a wrong number of chromosomes (detectable by pre-implantation testing PGT) in the embryo unrelated to any kind of «rejection» on the part of the mother. However, in certain situations which produce intense suffering, an immunological workup is indeed warranted.
Our IVF laboratory enjoys a cooperation with Dr Diana ALECSANDRU of the large benchmark centre IVI Madrid (also the home base of our laboratory director). Thus we can offer the latest (as mentioned, also experimental) immunological knowledge and methods at GYNE INVITRO.
Implantation of a human embryo in the uterus is a delicate balance between support and rejection, which depends on the genetic constitution of both mother and father. Contrarily to earlier views, the so-called killer cells in the female uterus are not detrimental, but necessary for implantation, provided they get the correct signals from the embryo. In women, the corresponding constitution is coded in the KIR genes, which vary greatly from one woman to another. KIR genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 19 (lower bottom picture).
Position of KIR genes on chromosome 19.
Activating signals (blue) in KIR group B.
Activating KIR genes (green), inhibiting (red).